Mikrotik company is the designer of the Mikrotik operating system and also manufactures hardware products called Routerboard and products such as bandwidth controller. One of the useful commands in Mikrotik routers is Destination NAT, which is used to change the public input IP address to the private internal IP address. In this article, from the IT assistant, we will learn about NAT technology, the concept of Destination NAT and destination NAT training in Mikrotik.
What is NAT technology?
NAT technology stands for Network address translation. NAT is a method of routing information in the Internet space. This method translates several local private addresses to public addresses before transferring the information. Organizations that want multiple devices to use the same IP address in their internal environment use NAT. Home routers work exactly based on this technology. NAT technology is one of the most important technologies in computer networks.
How does NAT work?
Suppose a laptop is connected to a home router. A person uses a laptop to search for directions to their favorite restaurant. The laptop sends this request in a data packet to the router, so the router forwards it to the web. But before sending the information, the router first changes the outgoing IP address from a private local address to a public address.
The receiving server would not know where to send the data if the intended data packet was sent with the same private IP address. This issue is similar to sending physical letters and requesting return or reply services. If the IP address is sent to the receiving server, it is the same as providing an anonymous address instead of our address on the mail or leaving the address blank. With NAT, information is routed back to the sender’s laptop using the router’s public address, not the laptop’s private address.
The difference between Source NAT and Destination NAT
NAT routing technology works in the third layer of the OSI model or Network layer; This is why NAT works with IP addresses. As mentioned earlier, the basic job of NAT is to convert local private IP to public IP and vice versa. The same route and round trip create two types of NAT operations. The first case is when the private IP is converted to a public IP, called Source NAT operation. The second case is when the public IP is converted or translated into a private IP called Destination NAT.
- Destination NAT operation and technology change the destination address of the packets passing through the router. This method provides a solution for port translation in TCP/UDP headers.
- Destination NAT usually directs incoming packets with an external address or port destination to an internal IP address or port within the network.
- Different applications of Destination NAT
Destination NAT is performed, destination IP addresses are configured and translated according to Destination NAT rules, and security policies are applied. Destination NAT is commonly used to perform the following actions:
- Translate a single IP address to another: for example, to allow a device on the Internet to connect to a host on a private network
- Translate a contiguous block of IP addresses into another block of addresses of the same size: for example, to allow access to a group of servers
- Translate the destination IP address and port to another destination IP address and port: for example, to allow access to multiple services using the same IP address but different ports
Destination NAT address pool definition
A NAT Pool is a set of user-defined IP addresses used for translation. Unlike static NAT, where there is one-to-one routing and IP translation, group-to-group IP translation is possible here. Meanwhile, in this case, the original destination IP address is translated to an IP address from a user-defined pool. Therefore, if the original destination IP address range is larger than the address range in the user-defined address pool, any untranslated packets are dropped. This feature is one of the applications of Destination NAT.
You can configure a NAT Pool to exist in the default routing instance. A configuration option specifies whether a NAT pool exists in the default routing instance. As a result, the NAT pool is discoverable and reachable from zones in the default routing instance and from zones in other routing instances.
Introduction of Mikrotik company
MikroTik is a network equipment manufacturer. This company belongs to Latvia in Europe. Mikrotik develops and sells wired and wireless network routers, network switches, operating systems, and supporting software for its products.
Mikrotik was founded in 1996 to sell network equipment in emerging markets. As of August 2019, the company’s website reported the number of employees at around 280. In 2015, Mikrotik was the 20th largest company in Latvia, with revenues of 202 million euros. Mikrotik was originally a PC software company. In 2002, the company began producing its hardware.
What is the Mikrotik router operating system?
MikroTik router operating system named MikroTik RouterOS is an independent Linux operating system used in MikroTik network equipment. Of course, this is more than just an operating system for routers. This software can even be installed on regular PCs to turn them into dedicated routers.
The operating system of Mikrotik increases the efficiency of network equipment manufactured by Mikrotik. This operating system also has high flexibility to install on computers and turn them into routers. Mikrotik operating system has routing, Firewall, bandwidth management, creation of wireless access point, backhaul link, spot ports, and a VPN server.
RouterOS operating system can be used in networks in two ways: in the first case, this operating system can be installed on a personal computer or virtual machine; The second mode is when this operating system is installed on the RouterBoard hardware in Mikrotik’s physical equipment. In both cases, we have created a Mikrotik router. Routerboards are Mikrotik’s exclusive hardware and RouterOS operating system, which have several network ports.
Advantages of using Mikrotik router operating system
Companies can use Mikrotik’s operating system as a trial solution during the R&D process. Practical results have shown that this operating system’s research and development phase has been generally successful. Many companies have extensively implemented it as part of their development solution to serve their customers. Today, this operating system can be converted into a cloud management suite since it adds many improvements and functions. Let’s review some of the advantages of using this operating system:
- It is affordable
- It is easy to deploy
- It is powerful and practical
- Compared to other brands at the same price, it has more features
- It is widely available
- Today it can be easily obtained
- It is very adjustable and flexible
- You can use it to write a powerful script to improve performance
- You can create a different configuration approach based on your needs
User management training with Mikrotik – click
Training destination nat in Mikrotik for more safety
Network address translation in the Destination NAT method is possible by changing the network address information in the IP header of packets. Let’s look at a common setup where a network administrator wants to access an administrative server from the Internet. We want to allow connections from the Internet to the administration server, whose local IP is 10.0.0.3. In this case, we need to configure a destination address translation rule on the administrative gateway router as follows:
The above rule translates to When an incoming connection requests TCP port 22 with destination address 172.16.16.1, use the Destination NAT or DST-nat function and forward the packets to the device with local IP address 10.0.0.3 and port 22 transfer.
Note: To allow access, but only from the home PC, we can improve our DST-nat rule with “src-address=192.168.88.1” which is a public IP address of the home PC for added security. You can choose and participate in this training course to fully familiarize yourself with topics related to network security:
Training destination nat in Mikrotik for port forwarding operations
As we explained at the beginning of the article, Destination NAT is used not only to change the IP address but also to change the port. Port forwarding is one of the daily needs of internet users, website administrators, and server and host management. In the following, we will learn about this concept, the use of Destination NAT, and how to set it up in Mikrotik.
What is port forwarding?
Port forwarding intercepts and routes data traffic to a computer’s IP/port combination and redirects it to another IP or port. This process can be easily done using a MikroTik router or any system running RouterOS. This process also creates a better user experience and optimal management of users when using the Mikrotik router.
How to use and configure port forwarding in Mikrotik
To understand the necessity and application of the port forwarding process, suppose you are an IT manager. You have created a large network, and someone wants to remotely connect to your VPS or dedicated server to work remotely. You cannot share the server IP with that person for security reasons. What should you do?
In this situation, you must use port forwarding in the Mikrotik router to handle all requests, and this operation is performed based on the Destination NAT feature. To configure port forwarding in MikroTik, you must first make sure that you have installed the latest version of MikroTik RouterOS, and then do these things step by step:
Step 1: Log in to your MikroTik server with admin privileges
Step 2: Click on IP from the left panel
Step 3: In the submenu that opens, click on Firewall
Step 4: Go to the NAT tab in the Firewall window
Step 5: Click the + button to create a new rule; Note that in this scenario, it is assumed that the router is connected to the IP (10.10.10.10) and we want to forward all requests from (10.10.10.10:5847) to (22.214.171.124:4324).
Step 6: Click the General tab and select distant from the drop-down list
Step 7: In the Dst field. Address Type the IP from which you want to forward all requests
Step 8: From the protocol list, select the connection protocol such as TCP
Step 9: In the Dst field. Port Type the port you want to forward requests from
Step 10: Now go to the Action tab
Step 11: From the Action drop-down list, select DST-nat
Step 12: In the To Addresses field, type the desired IP to send all requests to
Step 13: In the To Ports field, type the port code to which you want to forward requests.
Step 14: Click Apply and then OK to save and add the new rule
This way, you have successfully configured your first port forwarding rule in MikroTik. To add new port forwarding rules, follow the same steps for new ports or IPs.
Source NAT training in Mikrotik
Suppose you want to hide your local devices behind the public IP address received from your Internet Service Provider (ISP). In that case, you need to configure your MikroTik router’s source network address translation or masquerading feature. Suppose you want to hide the office computer and server behind the public IP 172.16.16.1. The rule required for this work in the operating system will be as follows:
By setting this rule, your ISP will see all requests sent to the 172.16.16.1 IP address, not your LAN IP addresses.
Mikrotik routers with the ability to support destination nat
MikroTik routers and switches are affordable and reliable products. Due to their low cost, they are very suitable for small and medium businesses. In some cases, even large companies use these products because they offer many features at a very low cost. However, they are not suitable for supporting large volumes of data traffic like the main tier of ISPs. If you are interested in learning about the Mikrotik routing system, the following course is the best option:
Managers of one of the companies that have used MikroTik routers and switches in their development process, especially the CCR-1036 and CCR-1072 models, said about their experience: “What we like is the ease of use and how they work for It is data processing. Likewise, we have deployed RB devices as the customer’s CPE, and the results have been satisfactory.” Let’s review some features of Mikrotik routers:
- Support for Destination nat to access servers inside the network from outside
- Support MPLS, BGP, and OSPF routing protocols
- The possibility of setting up a hotspot
- The possibility of network accounting
- IP address support version 6
- High boot speed on the router
- Support for the routing system based on PBR or Policy-Based Routing
- The possibility of remote access to a remote network through various VPN protocols
- VRF support
- Support for multiple virtual routers
- Ability to perform network traffic control operations
- Apply speed limit for users
- The possibility of connecting to several Internet service providers
- The possibility of distributing users’ Internet traffic on several Internet links
- Ability to set up DHCP on the network to configure network clients
- The possibility of implementing quality of service on network packets
- The ability to use the MAC address for the initial configuration of the device without the need for an IP address at first
Mikrotik router category and some of its most commonly used types
Mikrotik routers can be divided into four basic groups. This classification is based on several factors, including the connection technologies, the number of ports, the size, and the field of work of the devices. The four groups of these routers are:
- 3DIGIT routers
- 4DIGIT routers
- Naming routers
- Cloud Core routers
Some of the famous models of these routers are:
- RB133C: Simple Mikrotik router for subscriber-side wireless service
- RB450: from Router Banel series with 300MHZ processor, 32MB memory, and 5 Ethernet ports
- RB411: This router is used in links with medium bandwidth and high distances
- RB493: suitable for routing and wireless servicing of offices and centers connected to multiple Sowre
- RB433: suitable for wireless links with high bandwidth and long distances
- 433AH: Very powerful router with many features
- RB600A: It has the high processing power and is similar to the 433AH router
- RB1000: It has a powerful 13333MHZ processor and 512MB memory
To fully familiarize yourself with Mikrotik company’s routers and their application and features, we suggest all those interested participate in this course:
learning and teaching destination nat in Mikrotik; A factor for the development of companies
Mikrotik company is one of the top companies producing network equipment and software required for it. Among the most important products of this company are Mikrotik routers, as well as the company’s proprietary operating system and its hardware called RouterOS. One of the useful commands in this operating system is the destination nat training, which works based on the network address translation method.
This command and other functional commands in this operating system allow you to increase the efficiency of your equipment based on individual or corporate needs. Therefore, we suggest learning the skills of working with the Mikrotik operating system and those related to network security to all people who intend to learn the optimal and practical management of the network, server and related equipment or to teach others how to work with them.