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What Is Protocol and Its Types in Networking?

Protocols are the main foundations of communication and information in communication and computer networks. They are like guides that guide devices and computers, allowing them to send and receive data. For every function in the network, there is a protocol that is responsible for performing that function.

A Protocol is a set of rules, regulations, and agreements used to communicate and exchange information between devices or computers in networks. These rules and regulations determine how to establish, transmit, and process data and ensure the accuracy and reliability of communications. By using protocols, communication between devices and computers in networks is structured and predictable. Also, protocols play an important role in information exchange and data transfer on the Internet and telecommunication networks and are of great importance.

Protocols are divided into three main categories: communication, management, and security. Communication protocols establish communication between devices and send information packets in networks. These protocols use different techniques to transfer information and can support various digital telecommunication standards.

Management protocols are used to monitor devices and optimize network performance. These protocols affect equipment such as routers, servers, and modems, allowing network administrators to manage devices remotely.

Network security is also one of the crucial aspects of the world of communication. Security protocols and related policies protect information and prevent unauthorized access to networks.

In purchasing a virtual server and setting it up, network protocols are used for communication between the user and the virtual server. These protocols transfer data and information between the user and the virtual server. Users can safely and stably use their virtual server services and securely share their data using network protocols.

This article will discuss the concept of protocol, its role and function in networks, and different types of protocols. The continuation of the report will be done by examining each category of protocols and explaining their details. Also, the role of these protocols in the performance of networks and their importance in maintaining the security and efficiency of today’s networks will be investigated. Stay with us.

Table of Contents

  • What is the concept of protocol?
  • What are the similarities and differences between programming languages and protocols?
  • What entities manage communication protocols?
  • How does the protocol work?
  • Types of Network Protocols
  • Application of protocols in communication and network connections
  • Vulnerabilities of protocols
  • The future of protocols



What is the concept of protocol?

In general, protocol is defined as a set of rules and regulations used in communication and information exchange between devices, systems, or computers. Protocols are defined in a standard form to ensure that communication between devices is done correctly and in a coordinated manner.

In fact, the communication protocol, as a mechanism of rules and concepts, is formed between two or more communication systems, providing the possibility of transferring information through any physical quantity. These protocols define the signs or signals that computers use to communicate and specify how communication begins and ends.

Regarding networks and the Internet, protocols are vital in data transfer and communication between devices. For example, Internet protocols such as TCP/IP, widely used on the Internet, are responsible for sending and receiving data packets and ensuring that communication between two devices is done correctly.

Protocols can be used for many things, including data transfer, email sending, network management, cellular communication, communication between computer systems, etc. Each protocol has its role and tasks, with the help of which it is possible to transfer information effectively and safely.

Among the things that protocols determine are communication rules, syntax of messages, concepts used in communication, synchronization of communication, possible methods for error compensation, and more.

Protocols can be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both, and clear and specific formats are used to exchange different messages in communication systems. Each letter has a precise meaning and aims to draw out a response from several predetermined responses to particular conditions. The behavior specified in the protocols will usually be independent of how they are implemented. In communication, the parties must agree on the protocols for establishing effective communication. To reach this agreement, protocols may be developed and become standards.


What are the similarities and differences between programming languages and protocols?

Protocols and programming languages play essential roles in communication and computing, and they have similarities and differences. Programming languages are used to describe and perform calculations, and protocols are used to establish communication between devices.

Protocols and programming languages each have rules that enable optimal and correct operations in their fields. These two types of rules can have essential similarities Because both are designed to solve a specific problem and describe similar aspects.

For example, several protocols may describe different aspects of communication between devices, and algorithms may be used to solve other problems.

What entities manage communication protocols?

Communication protocols for the Internet are published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and for wireless and wired computer network protocols, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is responsible for management.

Also, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) controls other types of protocols, and the Telecommunications Standardization Division of the ITU, known as ITU-T, is responsible for managing communication protocols and telecommunication structures in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Finally, due to the convergence and intersection of PSTN and the Internet, the standards and protocols used in each of these areas are being linked and integrated, which helps to improve the efficiency and performance of communications.

How does the protocol work?

A protocol is a set of rules and formats that devices use to communicate with each other. Protocols determine how data is packaged, transmitted, authenticated, error-corrected, flow-controlled, and error-controlled.

When exchanging data, devices divide it into smaller packets and send them serially or in parallel. The destination device parses and reconstructs the data using the specified protocol formats when received.

Using rules and formats in the protocol ensures that devices communicate and interact with each other correctly. Rules determine how data is packaged, transmitted over the network, authenticated, error corrected, and flow control and error control mechanisms.

Formats will be responsible for translating and interpreting data for devices.


Types of Network Protocols

In the following, we introduce and explain these categories and some types of network protocols:

Management protocols

These protocols are used to monitor and optimize the performance of networks. They affect network equipment such as routers, servers, and modems. Some of the most commonly used types of management protocols are:

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP): protocols used for routing between devices inside a network.

External Gateway Protocol (EGP): Protocols used for routing between different networks and transferring data from one network to another.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): A protocol to manage and monitor network devices and resources.



Security Protocols

These protocols are used to protect information and encrypt it in networks. They prevent unauthorized access to the network. Some of the security protocols used in networks are:

Transport Layer Security (TLS): A protocol to encrypt and provide secure communication between two devices.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A protocol to establish a secure connection between a browser and a web server.

Network Authentication Protocol (Network Access Control – NAC): A protocol used to identify and authenticate devices and users in the network.

Finally, the selection and proper implementation of protocols for each network is the responsibility of network specialists and administrators. Using the correct protocols ensures optimal network performance and information security protection.

Network communication protocols

As a technical concept, communication protocol refers to a set of rules, regulations, and agreements used in communication and information exchange between two or more entities, systems, or devices. These rules and agreements help computers, networks, and different devices to transmit and understand information correctly and in a certain way.

In simpler words, communication protocols consist of formats and rules of digital messages, and their task is to exchange messages between computer systems. These protocols are essential in telecommunication systems because messages are constantly sent and received. Communication protocols detect and correct errors and handle marking and authentication.

Communication protocols include specific rules and procedures determining how data is sent, received, recognized, and responded to between devices. These protocols also specify how communication is established, information is packaged into packets, and network resources are used.

Examples of communication protocols include protocols such as TCP/IP used to transfer data on the Internet, HTTP protocol used to share web pages, SMTP protocol for sending email, and various other protocols such as FTP, SSH, and DNS. Are. Each protocol has its specific role and tasks and ensures that communication between devices is done correctly and without interference.

These protocols can also describe concepts and syntax and link analog and digital communication. Protocols can be implemented in hardware and software, and a wide variety of communication protocols are used in all analog and digital communications. Without these communication protocols, computer networks cannot function properly.

Some commonly used types of communication protocols

Internet Transfer Protocol (TCP/IP)

It is a popular and primary protocol for communication on the Internet and local networks. This protocol is responsible for establishing safe and reliable communication.

The TCP protocol also ensures data transmission and ensures that the data is transmitted in order and without errors.

IP protocol

It is responsible for determining the network’s address and routing of information packets.

HTTP protocol

One of the most widely used protocols is the HTTP protocol, which establishes communication and sends information on the Internet. This protocol uses the TCP/IP protocol to communicate between the server and the clients.

The HTTPS protocol is also a more secure version of HTTP that uses an SSL certificate to establish a secure connection.

FTP protocol (File Transfer Protocol)

The FTP protocol is used to transfer files, which allows up to 256 simultaneous connections and is responsible for client authentication and file transfer.

RTP protocol (Real-Time Transport Protocol)

The RTP protocol is also used for real-time data transmission and VOIP (Voice Transmission Technology) communications, efficiently transmitting voice to multiple destinations.

SNMP protocol (Simple Network Management Protocol)

Other protocols, such as SNMP, manage networks and exchange information between management devices.

DHCP protocol

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that operates at layer 7 of the OSI model and has a critical task: dynamically assigning IP addresses to network components. Using DHCP, it is possible to automatically give IP addresses to network devices without users needing to set the addresses manually. This method effectively benefits from easier management and improved network performance. DHCP ensures that each device that connects to the network gets a unique IP address and avoids overlapping addresses.

UDP protocol (User Datagram Protocol)

It is one of the network protocols used to transfer data between devices. It stands for User Datagram Protocol. This protocol is known as a wireless protocol because it does not need to create a virtual circuit before sending the data. UDP is similar to TCP in some features, but it has a different function and is mainly used to transmit voice and video over the network, where the bandwidth of this type of data is significant.

The UDP protocol uses Internet Protocol to send and receive data from one computer to another. To do this, it copies the data into a UDP packet and adds its header information. The header information includes the source and destination ports for communication, the length of the box, and a checksum that is used to ensure the integrity of the data.

Telnet protocol

The Telnet protocol is one of the oldest and most fundamental protocols in network communication, enabling remote communication with devices. This protocol lets users remotely connect to devices and servers and perform various operations.

You need a client program that provides a command-line interface to use this protocol. This command line interface lets you connect to the desired server or device and enter the required commands to perform various operations. Using this method, you can remotely and securely communicate with devices and control and manage them.

The most important feature of the Telnet protocol is that it transmits communication information in a simple and unencrypted manner. Still, this issue may create a security weakness, especially in public networks. For this reason, more secure protocols such as SSH are now used for secure remote communication. However, the Telnet protocol’s long history and widespread use still make it one of the most essential predecessors in network communication.


DNS, or Domain Name System, is a network naming system that converts domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This system allows users to enter domain names instead of IP addresses, which are a collection of numbers. This makes it easier for users to use the Internet.

DNS is a fundamental component of the Internet. Without DNS, users had to enter IP addresses instead of domain names. This made it much more challenging to use the Internet.


Application of protocols in communication and network connections

In this article, we will give examples of the use of protocols in communication and network connections, which show how these protocols are used in different industries:

  • One of the most widely used protocols is the HTTP protocol in web communications. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) allows users to access web pages, fill out forms, download files, and other Internet-related activities.
  • FTP protocol is also used to transfer files between systems on the network. This protocol provides the possibility of moving files bilaterally and using special commands.
  • The DNS protocol names and translates domain names to IP addresses. With the help of DNS servers, it provides access to websites using domain names.
  • To manage sending and receiving emails, SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) protocol is used to send emails between servers, and POP (Post Office Protocol) and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) protocols are used to receive emails by users.

These are only a few examples of the applications of protocols in networks, and each protocol is designed for a specific task. These protocols are used in various industries, including Internet communications, wireless connections, and internal network connections of organizations, and play a vital role in the performance and improvement of contacts and networks.

Vulnerabilities of protocols

Protocol vulnerabilities refer to security problems and weaknesses in network protocols. These vulnerabilities can lead to privacy violations, system intrusion, unauthorized access, information tracking, hacking attacks, and other security threats.

Protocol vulnerabilities include security weaknesses in data formats, inaccuracy and health of data, protocol design and implementation, reprocessing and invalid communications vulnerabilities, and authentication and encryption processes.

Malicious individuals or groups can exploit the vulnerabilities of protocols for cyber attacks and intrusion into systems and networks. To mitigate vulnerabilities, security patches, and updates are usually provided to address protocol weaknesses and security issues.

To protect networks and information, we need to know what protocol is and which areas are more vulnerable to protocols. The use of robust encryption methods, the correct use of protocols, the application of security policies and mechanisms, the training and awareness of users, and the proper implementation of security management methods help to reduce the vulnerabilities of protocols.

In this way, improving the security of protocols in networks plays a vital role in protecting information and preventing unwanted intrusions. By implementing updates and applying appropriate security measures, it is possible to reduce the vulnerabilities of the protocols and avoid the potential security threats associated with them.

The Future of Protocols

In the future, with the development of technologies and new needs in the field of communication, the need to develop and improve network protocols will probably be felt more. These needs will include increasing network speed and performance, enhancing security and privacy, adapting to new technologies, supporting smart devices and the Internet of Things, increasing bandwidth and scalability, and other needs related to future networks.

In addition, the standardization and development of new protocols will continue. Specialized organizations and groups in network and communication will work to define and develop innovative protocols imp, improve existing standards, and provide better solutions in the field of communication. These activities aim to enhance and optimize networks to adapt to new needs and industrial developments to bring more and better communications in the future. In this way, a brighter and more promising future for global communication will be waiting for us.


In this article, we did a comprehensive and complete review of the concept of protocol and its importance in networks. Also, we examined the performance of protocols in communicating, managing, and securing networks. Different types of protocols were also briefly introduced and explained. We hope this article has helped you to know the importance and essential role of protocols in the optimal and secure operation of networks. By using this information, you can take the necessary steps to choose and implement appropriate protocols in your network and benefit from the efficiency and security of your network.


Frequently Asked Questions:

Question: What are the divisions for protocols?

Based on their task type, protocols are divided into three main categories: communication, management, and security.

What is the function of protocols in the network?

The main functions of protocols in the network include establishing communication, managing and monitoring the web, and providing security in touch.

What do security protocols do?

Security protocols are used to protect information and encrypt communications in the network.