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What Is Javafx And What Is Its Application In The World Of Software Design?

Javafx Is A Platform For Building Rich Web Applications. Rich Web Applications Refer To A Specific Type Of Application That Offers The Same Capabilities And User Experience As Desktop Applications. 

Javafx, These apps give the user a better visual experience than regular apps. Rich applications were originally called Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) and came in browser plug-ins or virtual machines to convert traditional static applications into improved, streamlined, and attractive versions.

Over time, this programming paradigm underwent major changes and was eventually renamed JavaFX.

In rich applications, the presentation of graphic elements and effects is managed on the client-side because the plugin provided for this purpose can support rich graphics.

Technologies for creating rich web applications

Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and JavaFX are used to build rich web applications.

Adobe Flash

This software infrastructure provided by Adobe Systems is used to develop and build rich web applications. In addition, it is possible to build other applications such as vectors, animations, browser-based games, desktop applications, mobile applications, and games with Adobe Flash. However, official support for Adobe Flash was completely discontinued in 2020, and even operating systems and browsers do not support it.

Microsoft Silverlight

Like Adobe Flash, this platform is a software framework for building, developing, and executing rich web applications, mostly used for multimedia streaming. Newer versions of the framework use better graphics, animation, and multimedia capabilities than earlier versions.


Is a Java library used to develop rich web applications? The programs created by this library can be run on most browsers using Java technology.

What is JavaFX?

JavaFX is a Java language library for building rich web applications. Programs prepared by this programming language can be run on various platforms.

In addition, applications developed with JavaFX run on various devices, including desktops, smartphones, smart TVs, tablets, and other smart devices. In the past, Java programmers used libraries such as Swing and the Advanced Windowing Toolkit to build GUI applications.

However, after the release of JavaFX, programmers saw it as a viable alternative to common examples because of the library’s extensive capabilities in developing graphical user-based applications.

How was JavaFX born?

JavaFX was first designed by software engineer Chris Oliver while working for See Beyond Technology. Sun Microsystems then bought it and continued its development. The project was originally called Form Follows Functions (F3) and aimed to provide rich user interfaces for developing GUI applications but was renamed JavaFX after being acquired by Sun Microsystems.

In 2007, JavaFX was officially introduced at the Java One Conference, the annual web conference. So In 2008, Net Beans was integrated with JavaFX, and a standard Java development kit for JavaFX 1.0 was released.

In 2009, Oracle acquired Sun and released JavaFX 1.3. The publishing of different versions of this library continued until September 2020, when the latest version of JavaFX 15 was released. From Java 8 onwards, the Java Development Kit (JDK) was made available to developers and the JavaFX library.

Therefore, you must have Java version 8 or higher installed on your system to run JavaFX applications. In addition, most integrated development environments such as Eclipse and NetBeans fully support JavaFX.

What features does JavaFX have, and what is it used for?

Java programmers use various libraries to build client-side applications with rich capabilities to use user interface controls, 2D, 3D graphics, and multimedia in their applications.

JavaFX provides developers with all of these features in a single library. In addition, it provides access to other features such as Swing. JavaFX provides a complete set of graphical and media programming interfaces and also uses a computer graphics processor through graphical acceleration.

In addition, JavaFX provides interfaces that programmers can use to combine graphical animations and user interface controls. JavaFX can also use JavaFX with Java Virtual Machine (JVM) technologies such as Groovy, JRuby, and Java.

  • Programming in Java: The JavaFX library is written in Java and can be used by all languages ​​running on a Java virtual machine, such as Java, Groovy, and JRuby. Applications written with JavaFX, like Java, are platform-independent. 
  • FXML: JavaFX supports a markup language called FXML, similar to the HTML hypertext markup language. This language is used to define the user interface. 
  • Scene Builder: JavaFX is equipped with a powerful component called Scene Builder, which integrates JavaFX with integrated development environments such as Eclipse and NetBeans. The above component allows you to use a drag-and-drop design user interface in integrated development environments. In addition, developers can use the above technique to build FXML applications. 
  • Swing Interoperability: In a JavaFX application, you can embed Swing content using the Swing Node class. In addition, developers can upgrade existing Swing applications with JavaFX capabilities such as embedded web content and rich graphical media.
  • Internal user interface controls: The JavaFX library makes some common user interface controls available to developers to develop a complete application. 
  • CSS-like styling: This infrastructure provides a CSS-like styling method. Developers with basic knowledge of CSS are easily able to style applications based on this template. 
  • Native user programming and print interfaces JavaFX: JavaFX provides a custom canvas that provides access to a real-time animation mode. Inside the JavaFX.scene.canvas package is a set of canvas classes that can draw directly inside a JavaFX scene. Additionally, developers can use the classes inside the JavaFX.print package to print shapes. 
  • Complete set of application programming interfaces: JavaFX provides developers with a wide range of application programming interfaces for developing GUI applications, 2D graphics, 3D graphics, and more. This set of application programming interfaces make it possible to access some of the important features of the Java platform. These include generics, annotations, multi-threads and lambda phrases, observable lists, and maps. These capabilities allow developers to scrutinize changes to data models. 
  • Integrated Graphics Library: JavaFX has developed special 2D and 3D graphics classes with some Adobe Flash capabilities. 
  • Graphic Pipeline: JavaFX supports graphics based on the graphics hardware accelerator pipeline called Prism. Graphics are displayed psychologically when used with this powerful graphics card. If this accelerator cannot support the graphics card, it resets the default Prism values ​​to software processing mode. 

JavaFX architecture

JavaFX provides a fully functional programming interface of classes and interfaces for building GUI applications with rich graphics. The most important packages of this application programming interface should be mentioned as follows:

  • Javafx. Animation: Includes classes for adding transition-based animations such as fill, fade, rotate, scale, and translation to JavaFX nodes. 
  • Javafx. Application: This contains a set of classes responsible for the life cycle of JavaFX applications.
  • Javafx.css: This contains a set of classes used to add CSS to GUI applications in JavaFX. 
  • Javafx. Event: Includes classes and interfaces for managing events in Javafx. Event. 
  • Javafx. Geometry: Contains classes that are used to define two-dimensional objects and execute operations on them. 
  • Javafx.stage : Contains a set of high-level container classes used to maintain javafx.stage. 
  • Javafx. Scene: Contains classes and interfaces to support scene graphs. In addition, it supports packages such as canvas, chart, control effect, image, input, layout, media, paint, shape, text, transform, web, etc.

Figure 1 shows the JavaFX API architecture. As you can see, the JavaFX API is supported by important and powerful components.

figure 1

Scene graph

GUI applications in JavaFX are coded using a Scene Graph. The scene graph is the starting point for building GUI applications that maintain the basic requirements of the graphical interface in defined nodes. Here, the node refers to a visual or graphic object that has the following properties:

  • Geometric objects: Two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects such as circles, rectangles, polygons, etc.
  • User controls: Objects such as buttons, menus, drop-down menus, text area, and more.
  • Containers: Containers are the Layout sections that define elements such as borders, grids, rotations, and so on.  
  • Multimedia elements: Includes items such as audio, video, and video. 

In general, each set of nodes forms a scene graph. All of these nodes are defined in a hierarchy like a network two.

Each node in the scene graph has a single parent. A node that has no parent is known as a root node. In the above architecture, each node can have one or more children. Childless nodes are known as leaf nodes, and childless nodes are known as branch nodes.


Prism is a high-performance graphics hardware acceleration pipeline used for graphics processing in JavaFX. This processing engine can process 2D and 3D graphics.

Prism uses DirectX for graphics processing on Windows operating systems and OpenGL on Mac, Linux, and embedded operating systems. If the GPU lacks the necessary processing capabilities, Prism uses a software mechanism to process the graphics.

figure 2


The Transparent Windowing Toolkit (GWT) Glass Windowing Toolkit is used to manage windows, timers, levels, and events. In addition, GWT plays the role of connecting the JavaFX platform with the operating system.

Quantum Toolkit

The above component places an abstract layer on the low-level components of Prism, Glass, Media Engine, and Web Engine so that the user can use JavaFX regardless of the technical complexity. It also connects Prism and GWT.


Developers can use JavaFX to embed HTML content in a scene graph. WebView is one of the most important components of JavaFX used to process this content model. This component uses the Web Kit, which is an internal open source web browser engine.

This component supports various technologies such as HTML5, CSS, JavaScript DOM, and SVG. WebView allows developers to process HTML content from local or remote URLs, support history, provide back-and-forth navigation, reload content, apply special effects to web components, edit HTML content, execute JavaScript commands, and manage events.

Multimedia engine

The JavaFX multimedia engine is based on the Streamer open-source engine. The multimedia engine supports playback of video and audio content. The package consists of classes and interfaces that manage multimedia functions in JavaFX. This package consists of three components: Media Object, Media Player, and Media View.

The structure of JavaFX applications

In general, a JavaFX program is made up of three components: Stage, Scene, and Nodes. Figure 3 shows how these components relate to each other.


Figure 3


The stage is a window in which all JavaFX objects and applications are located. Stage class, The JavaFX.stage package is used to display this window. JavaFX itself creates the initial stage, and then the created Stage object is passed as an argument to the start () function of the Application class. A stage has two parameters called Width and Height that specify the width and height status.

This class is divided into two parts: Content Area and Decorations. There are generally five stages in JavaFX: Decorated, Undecorated, Transparent, Unified, and Utility. To display Stage content, you must call the Show () method.


Scene Shows the physical content of a JavaFX application. This element stores all the content of a scene graph. This class is in the JavaFX.scene package, which is responsible for displaying the scene object.

Scene graphs and nodes

A Scene Graph is a hierarchical data structure that represents the content of a page. A scene can contain a node object. A node object includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometric objects, user interface controls, various containers, and multimedia elements. The Node class of the JavaFX.scene package is responsible for managing all nodes.

In JavaFX, a node can have one of three modes:

  • Root Node: The first graph built into JavaFX. 
  • Branch / Parent Node: A node that contains one or more child nodes. The parent class is called Parent from the JavaFX. The scene package is the base class of all parent nodes. The parent node includes the following:
  • Group: A group of nodes that contains a list of child nodes. Each time a group node is processed, all child nodes are processed in sequence. Any changes, effects, and states applicable to each node in a group apply to all child nodes. 
  • Region: A region node is the base class of all JavaFX nodes based on user interface controls such as Chart, Pane, and Control. 
  • WebView: This node manages the web engine and displays its content. 
  • Leaf Node: This node has no children; Rectangle, Ellipse Box, ImageView, and MediaView are examples of leaf nodes. 

Charts in JavaFX

Charts are generally used in JavaFX to represent data graphically. In JavaFX, different types of graphs are used to display data, the most important of which are bar, circle, linear, and distribution diagrams.

Circular diagrams and XY are the most widely used diagrams in JavaFX. A class represents each chart. However, all charts belong to the JavaFX.scene.chart package. The Chart class is the base class for all charts in JavaFX.

CSS in JavaFX

Cascading Stylization (CSS) is a simple design template designed to make web pages simpler and more attractive. Web developers use CSS to change the look of a website. Developers can use CSS to colorize the text, font style, paragraph spacing, column size, and overall page formatting.

In addition, CSS can be used to control the background images or colors used, the template designs or the way pages are displayed on different devices, and the like. Developers can use CSS in JavaFX to improve the appearance of applications.

The JavaFX package contains classes that are used to apply CSS to JavaFX applications. CSS defines stylization rules understood by browsers and applied to the corresponding elements in an HTML document.

 A CSS rule is made up of the following three components:

  • Selector: A selector is an HTML tag that specifies the element to be lightened. This element can be an h1 tag, table, or other items. 
  • Property: A property used to describe HTML tags. In other words, all HTML properties are converted to CSS properties. These properties can be colors, borders, fonts, and so on. 
  • Value: The value is assigned to the properties. For example, a color attribute could be values ​​such as red, # B1B1B1, and so on. 

Figure 4 shows how to use CSS syntax in JavaFX to style rich applications.


Figure 4

last word

In this article, we tried to provide an overview of JavaFX and the capabilities of this powerful framework that can be used to build various Java-based applications. JavaFX allows developers to create Java applications with modern user interfaces equipped with hardware acceleration.

Applications that are equipped with the portability index feature. So if you are a Java developer, we suggest you do not miss this great framework.