IoT

How To Implement An IOT Network Properly?

To Be Able To Demonstrate The Structure Of The Internet Of Things And Implement An Efficient Network, You Must Have A Thorough Understanding Of The Components, Protocols, And Architecture That Underpin The Technology. 

This architecture shows what you need to implement an IoT network, such as schemas, equipment, sensors, communication mechanisms, and applications.

The Internet of Things came into being with the motto of connecting physical objects and thus entering different industries, each with its own framework.

This led companies to introduce different architectures to the technology world based on their internal policies. However, the two models proposed by the International Telecommunication Union and the World IoT Society perform better than similar models.

How big is the IoT ecosystem?

The Internet of Things is big, and it gets bigger. There are now more devices connected to the Internet than there are humans! IDC predicts that by 2025, more than 41.6 billion IoT devices will be used worldwide, indicating that this smart technology will fully integrate into important industries such as automotive and energy, followed by smart homes and smart cities.

He said that intelligent equipment and sensors are displayed in them. “By 2020, over 5.8 billion connected devices have been used by businesses and the automotive industry,” says Gartner.

“Smart controllers, security equipment, and network cameras with connected lights have played an influential role in the universality of the Internet of Things.”

What are the components of IoT architecture?

In general, the IoT architecture has seven components: sensors, connectivity, cloud, data analysis, user interface, operators, and development.

The IoT ecosystem should be thought of as a large community of data and money flows that help connects businesses and customers. This new economic ecosystem has created a secure way to connect companies.

“The impact of the Internet of Things on everyday and business life will be so great that businesses will eventually offer the IoT ecosystem to their customers as important technologies as cybersecurity and risk management,” says Gartner.

The fact is that the Internet of Things has changed the connections between devices and objects and allowed people to access resources in the simplest way possible.

Given the brilliant benefits that the Internet of Things offers, we must understand how the core components of the Internet of Things work.

In the IoT ecosystem, data is collected by sensors, sent by edge nodes or gateways to a cloud or base, and processed there.

This data is processed and analyzed, and the output obtained by a user interface is shown to the consumer. This interactive user interface allows the user to take the necessary actions.

Of course, in most cases, the necessary actions are performed automatically and intelligently, and the information processed is used by stimuli so that there is no need for human intervention.

Using the refined information, these operators perform the necessary actions in the environment without interacting with the user.

In the IoT ecosystem, data is collected by sensors, sent by edge nodes or gateways to a cloud or base, and processed there.

This data is processed and analyzed, and the output obtained by a user interface is shown to the consumer.

This interactive user interface allows the user to take the necessary actions. Of course, in most cases, the necessary actions are performed automatically and intelligently, and the information processed is used by stimuli so that there is no need for human intervention.

Using the refined information, these operators perform the necessary actions in the environment without interacting with the user. In the IoT ecosystem, data is collected by sensors, sent by edge nodes or gateways to a cloud or base, and processed there.

This data is processed and analyzed, and the output obtained by a user interface is shown to the consumer.

This interactive user interface allows the user to take the necessary actions. Of course, in most cases, the necessary actions are performed automatically and intelligently, and the information processed is used by stimuli so that there is no need for human intervention.

Using the refined information, these operators perform the necessary actions in the environment without interacting with the user. This interactive user interface allows the user to take the necessary actions.

Of course, in most cases, the necessary actions are performed automatically and intelligently, and the information processed is used by stimuli so that there is no need for human intervention.

Using the refined information, these operators perform the necessary actions in the environment without interacting with the user.

This interactive user interface allows the user to take the necessary actions.

Of course, in most cases, the necessary actions are performed automatically and intelligently, and the information processed is used by stimuli so that there is no need for human intervention.

Using the refined information, these operators perform the necessary actions in the environment without interacting with the user.

  1. Sensors

Sensors shape the beating heart of the IoT ecosystem. Sensors are responsible for collecting and sending information by objects. Sensors can be temperature, motion, position, humidity, pressure, air quality, light, position, and more. These Internet-connected sensors can automatically collect environmental data and allow those in charge to make smart decisions.

On farms, automatic receipt of soil moisture information can tell farmers when to plant crops that need irrigation. This has two significant advantages. First, it saves water consumption, and second, it prevents crops from being lost due to dehydration. Farmers also make sure that when the crops are planted, they need enough water.

In another example, the issue of street lighting is discussed.

  1. Gates and device connectors

Gateways play several important roles in the IoT ecosystem. The first role of gateways is to manage the flow of data traffic between protocols and networks. Their second role is to translate network protocols so that equipment and sensors can exchange information based on a secure approach.

The third role of gateways is to transfer data to the next layer of the IoT ecosystem but make sure that the data is formatted correctly before transferring.

An important point to keep in mind when configuring gateways is the protocol used to exchange information. Companies typically use the TCP / IP protocol, which facilitates the data transfer process, but when using this protocol, one should pay attention to security issues such as implementing flood attacks.

 Another important point to note is the process of encrypting data before transferring it.

This prevents hackers from manipulating data while sending or receiving it. Gateways should be considered a double layer between the cloud and IoT equipment, which can impede the successful implementation of cyber attacks or illegal access to the network.

Given that protocols such as TCP / IP are naturally vulnerable and sometimes produce additional slag, companies have decided to move to newer and more efficient communication solutions to connect smart sensors and equipment.

For example, it is possible to connect sensors and smart devices based on a network based on solutions such as Low-Power Wide-Area, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee.

  1. IoT protocols

IoT protocols are conventions that define how data is transmitted over communication platforms. These protocols only perform the data transfer process when there is a secure connection between the devices and the communication network.

In general, IoT protocols are divided into two main groups, IoT Network Protocols, and IoT Data Protocols. Companies need to research the right options before implementing IoT networks.

IoT network protocols

The most important IoT network protocols are the LoRaWAN and NB-IoT standards, classified as a subset of large-scale low-power networks (LPWANs). The Statista Research Institute predicts that by 2023, approximately 85.5% of LPWAN network communications will be based on LoRaWAN and NB-IoT connection protocols.

What is the difference between LoRanWAN and NB-IoT?

LoRaWAN is provided by the LoRa Association and uses uncommon frequency bands to connect devices. This protocol allows users to set up their network at a low cost.

LoRaWAN is designed to connect a wide range of sensors and a remote IoT port, depending on environmental conditions, using a bandwidth of 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps.

This protocol can support an area of ​​15 to 20 km, so it is a good option for deployment in places such as mines and oil rigs. Nb-IoT, or Narrowband IoT, is an IoT protocol provided by 3GPP that uses a range of authorized radio frequencies.

This standard is designed to improve the internal coverage and support of low-power devices.

More precisely, the NB-IoT is a good choice for deployment in wearable buildings and equipment.

The common denominator of both protocols is their low consumption. However, LoRaWAN consumes less power than the NB-IoT and is a better solution for endpoint devices as it increases the battery life of the devices to several years.

However, LoRaWAN is a more cost-effective solution than NB-IoT. Therefore, it consumes energy more efficiently and is a viable option for the Internet of Things, especially in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries.

Organizations looking for a secure solution use the NB-IoT protocol because it is based on the 256-bit encryption provided by 3GPP, while LoRaWAN is based on the 128-bit AES encryption algorithm. As the battery life of the devices increases to several years.

However, LoRaWAN is a more cost-effective solution than NB-IoT. Therefore, it consumes energy more efficiently and is a viable option for the Internet of Things, especially in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries.

Organizations looking for a secure solution use the NB-IoT protocol because it is based on the 256-bit encryption provided by 3GPP, while LoRaWAN is based on the 128-bit AES encryption algorithm.

As the battery life of the devices increases to several years.

However, LoRaWAN is a more cost-effective solution than NB-IoT. Therefore, it consumes energy more efficiently and is a viable option for the Internet of Things, especially in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries.

Organizations looking for a secure solution use the NB-IoT protocol because it is based on the 256-bit encryption provided by 3GPP, while LoRaWAN is based on the 128-bit AES encryption algorithm.

IoT data protocols

IoT data protocols are used to connect low-power IoT devices. These protocols provide hardware-to-user communication without the need for an Internet connection. IoT data protocols can be used over wired or mobile networks. The most important IoT data protocols are:

MQTT

MQTT Title (MQ Telemetry Transport) means the transmission of messages through telemetry and alignment. MQTT is an Internet of Things / Machine-to-Machine (M2M) connection protocol.

This protocol is designed as a very lightweight broadcast/subscription message transmission. MQTT is effective and useful for connecting to remote locations that require little memory or where network bandwidth is highly valued.

For example, the protocol is used in sensors that communicate with a broker via satellite links, dial-up connections with healthcare providers at various times, and in a range of home automation and small devices.

MQTT is the most widely used protocol for implementing IoT systems.

MQTT is a machine-to-machine connection protocol designed to be a lightweight, low-volume publish-subscribe messenger protocol

TCP / IP work. MQTT defines a star topology through a central broker that connects multiple client devices. A client can be both a publisher of information and a subscriber of information.

When new information is available for distribution, a publisher sends the title and data to send the information to all groups that share the title.

MQTT is used to share telemetry information and control devices such as turning lights on and off and opening and closing doors. MQTT supports authentication using usernames and passwords but does not use encryption because it should be lightweight.

Therefore, it is recommended to use the TLS protocol in MQTT communications to avoid sensitive information such as titles and certificates.

CoAP

The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a software protocol used in straightforward electronic devices to communicate interactively over the Internet.

The Internet Design Engineering Task Force (IETF) Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Working Group has done the main standardization work on this protocol.

XMPP

XMPP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol is a communication protocol for XML-based messaging software.

AMQP protocol

The above protocol is based on the alignment approach and is suitable for message-based environments. Communication protocols that must exchange messages securely use the AMQP protocol.

In other words, when a message is exchanged, it must send to the destination with a very high degree of confidence. Through the AMQP carrier, the two components, publisher and subscriber, can communicate with each other.

According to priority, appropriate queue, and security line, publisher messages are stored in the AMQP carrier and routed to the appropriate subscriber.

DDS protocol

This protocol is an IoT standard developed by the Object Management Group and is suitable for small devices that take up little space and have cloud-based communications. The DSS consists of two parts.

The first part is an interface protocol (interface between the operating system and the application), and the second part is an API (application programming interface) that establishes communication between devices.

This architecture is the most suitable option for the IoT. The software on which it is designed provides the best option for information exchange and fast data integration in the IoT system.

One of the biggest benefits of this protocol is its support for most programming languages. In addition, it enables real-time communication with high reliability and scalability with the help of DSS. The DDS is made up of two layers:

DCPS, Data-Centric Publish-Subscribe, and DLRL, Data Local Reconstruction Layer.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is not widely used in the Internet of Things due to battery overload, security risks, and complex software issues. However, some industries use it.

For example, because much data is streamed in the 3D printing and printing industry, the industry needs the HTTP protocol.

For this reason, companies active in 3D printing and the Internet of Things have to use the HTTP protocol instead of the usual options.

Nabto Edge is used to build a TCP tunnel to exchange data for performing the data transfer process securely.

WebSocket

WebSocket was first developed as part of HTML5 technology in 2011 to allow messaging between the client and server via a TCP connection.

Like CoAp, the standard WebSocket connection protocol solves most problems and complexities of managing two-way connections and connections over the Internet.

Ease of use, cost-effectiveness, libraries and runtime environments, and technical complexity enabled this communication mechanism to enter the IoT ecosystem. WebSocket allows the equipment to exchange data continuously. This communication technology is widely used in client-server networks.

  1. Cloud and database

The Internet of Things helps organizations gather large amounts of data about equipment and applications. Various tools and solutions are available to companies for real-time data collection, management, and storage.

The ideal option is the cloud, which stores and classifies data on a large scale. However, to take advantage of the potential benefits of this technology, you must use the distributed cloud model.

The cloud is a high-performance network that connects servers to speed up real-time data processing. In addition, it helps to control traffic and deliver analysis results.

In general, cloud equipment effectively connects data storage gateways, protocols, and media.

However, some organizations, for various reasons, prefer to use the traditional database model instead of the cloud.

Organizations that want to take advantage of the potential benefits of data centers need a powerful database system that can retrieve data from various sources, efficiently store and manage it to enable instant data processing.

In addition, various management tools are available to companies to automate simple data storage and management.

  1. Data analysis

The data generated by the equipment and sensors must convert to make them easier to read and analyze. IoT equipment is used for real-time analysis. These analyses help companies look for problems, scams, irregularities, device life, energy consumption, and security.

Data analysis prevents cyber-attacks on smart devices and does not allow hackers to access users’ private data easily. However, large companies such as financial institutions, retailers, or the energy industry collect and analyze data on a large scale so that they can see future economic prospects and opportunities and determine business policies tailored to users’ tastes.

  1. User interface

The user interface allows consumers to communicate directly with the IoT ecosystem. For this reason, the user interface should be designed most simply so that technical and non-technical users can use it. Fortunately, over the past few years, the libraries, frameworks, and tools available to developers to build user-friendly interfaces have made significant progress and made it easier to build interactive interfaces.

For example, smart devices introduced in the last few years are equipped with color touch panels that have replaced hard controls. Interactive and tactile user interfaces have created fierce competition among large IoT equipment manufacturers to provide consumers with the simplest and most practical products.

  1. Operators

If you have read the IoT ecosystem carefully, you are well aware that intelligence and automation are the cornerstones of this industry. As mentioned, the professionals in charge of implementing IoT networks implement databases to support the automation feature to manage and store data easier.

In the next step, the collected data are analyzed to obtain accurate insight. An important step in implementing such a scenario is equipment intelligence. In the IoT ecosystem, intelligence means automated operations and settings by objects connected to the network.

  1. Development

Once the communication protocols and mechanisms have been identified and selected, the hardware requirements have been purchased, the applications have been selected or written, and the layout of the equipment in the environment has been prepared, it is time to deploy the system.

Typically, most consumers prefer to purchase equipment provided by a specific manufacturer so that there is no problem with not identifying the devices. However, in some cases, it is necessary to use products made by different manufacturers.

Once the network installation and testing process are complete, the equipment should continuously inspect. Whenever software updates or new products are introduced to the market, worn samples should replace with new ones.

For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the issue of compatibility when installing or developing equipment.