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hardware and software


During the first generation, the computer industry consisted of a handful of vendors. Each company produced its own line of hardware and software.

Also provided services to its clientele. Multiply the number of computer production vendors is for 30 years ago by several thousand.and you have an idea of how large the computer industry is today.

Also Some firms within the industry specialize in only a single segment; others compete in two or three.


Today well over 100 firms manufacture computer system units. Some are particularly strong in mainframes, others in minis, and still others in microcomputers. Only a few large firms offer products in more than one of these areas.

also of course Many companies that produce their own system units also make supporting hardware. However, not all firms that make peripheral devices also make system units.

Because the computer market is too big, virtually each company specializes in certain areas. For example, Apple and Compaq focus on micro computing products. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Data General are prominent vendors of minicomputer products.

Qume is a major manufacturer of printers and display devices. Other companies specialize in certain industries. For example , Diebold concentrates on technology products for banking, and Quotron specializes in products that relate to providing stock market quotations

And IBM is in a class by itself as a major force in mainframes, small-business systems, microcomputers, peripheral tools, and software. The Japanese firms, on the other hand, have become especially formidable players in the peripheral hardware markets.

In addition Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer. Computer Hardware is any part of the computer that we can touch these parts. . Examples of hardware in a computer are the Processor, Memory Devices, Monitor, Printer, Keyboard, Mouse, and the Central Processing Unit.

Computer Software

Despite of hard ware Software is a collection of instructions, procedures, documentation that performs different tasks on a computer system. we can say also Computer Software is a programming code executed on a computer processor. evenso The code can be machine-level code or the code written for an operating system. Examples of software are Ms Word, Excel, Power Point, Google Chrome, Photoshop, MySQL etc.

Among the most prominent software-only firms are Microsoft Corporation, Lotus Development Corporation, Computer Associates International, and Borland International .

Also ,There are different parts in the hardware of a computer: input unit, central processing device, and output unit.

a) Input Devices:

Data and instructions are fed in a computer by using the input devices.

(b) Central Processing Unit (CPU):

in reality It is the main unit of the computer. It is responsible for data processing. . The functioning of such a computer is in principle quite straightforward.

Instructions, like data, For example, the code for one kind of copy operation in the Intel X86 line of microprocessors is 10110000.

And The particular instruction ,It makes much easier to run existing software on a new machine by using an already-popular machine language.

Consequently, in markets where commercial software availability is important, suppliers have converged on one or a very small number of distinct machine languages.

i) Memory:

It a device that accept data which holds and deliver them when required. This kind of memory is also called as ‘primary storage section’ (PSS). Typically, on each clock cycle, the computer fetches instructions and data from its memory.

so A computer stores a piece of information in a location or cell called ‘byte’. Any location has an address for reference. Memory addressing is the addressing cell (or location) in memory by using number. For example, if a memory has ‘n’ cells, it will have addresses 0 to n-1. The size of all cells in a memory is equal.

There are different types of memoriesof hardware and software as given below

1. Random Access Memory (RAM):

It stores data and program temporarily. It contains the data of operating system, (basic) software and the other application programs.

2. Read Only Memory (ROM)

this kind of programs which are always needed for running the computer are burnt into ROM. ROM always contain the ‘bootstrap loader’. Therefore, it loads operating system into the memory and starts the computer when switched on.

3. Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM):

among the data of ROM cannot be changed, yet in some cases programming can be done by using special writing circuits. Then it is called PROM.

4. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM):

In PROM data cannot be changed. But EPROM are made in such a way that the data can be altered by passing through a strong ultra violet rays.

5. Cache Memory (Buffers):

It is a very high speed memory which stores temporarily some programs taking from main memory. It is faster but expensive.

Control Unit

As the term denotes, control unit controls all the interconnected operations.

It selects, interprets and directs the executed programs. Thus, it maintains the order and ordination of the whole system. This unit does not process the data but acts as central nervous system of the computer.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):

The ALU is the heart of the computer also It is capable of performing two classes of basic operations: (i) arithmetic operations e.g. adding or subtracting two numbers together [the set of arithmetic operations may be very limited; indeed, some designs do not directly support multiplication and division operations (instead, users support multiplication and division through programs that perform multiple additions, subtractions, and other digit manipulations), and (ii) the second comparison operations which given two numbers, determining if they are equal, or if not equal then which is larger for example, if A>B, then print A],


It is a special chip made for functioning of control unit and ALU. Also it acts as central processing unit of the computer. The companies that make microprocessor are : Intel, Zilog, Motorola, etc. Each microprocessor is marked with a unique number and name of the manufacturers as given below:

Intel 8085 (8 bit) Motorola 68020 (8 bit) ,Intel 80286 (16 bit) Motorola 68030 (16 bit) ,Intel 80336 (32 bit) Motorola 68040 (32 bit)

Numeric Co-processor:

Basically, CPU performs arithmetic and logical operations as well as entertains the demand for data and controls the traffic. , it present in a computer.

Secondary Storage Media:

As described earlier that memory provides volatile storage of data it means that data are lost or erased with power failure or other reasons. in addition To get rid off such problems, the secondary storage media are also available with computers, for example floppy disk, compact disk (CD), hard disk drives, etc.

Output Unit:

After processing the data, finally computer provides the results. so The users read the results by using output devices, for example monitor and printer.


A monitor is named visual display reality It works like television on the screen of which images can be seen. Hence, the image made up of small pixels can be seen on the screen of a monitor. hence There are different types of monitors  in market which are made by different companies.


It is an alternative term for computer programs and also It is a more inclusive phrase and includes all the ancillary material accompanying the programs needed to do useful tasks.

For example, a video game includes not only the program itself, but also data representing the pictures, sounds, and other material needed to create the virtual environment of the game. in reality A computer application is a piece of computer software provided to many computer users, often in a retail environment.

Types of Software:

The term “software” was first used by John W. Turkey in 1957. it is the programs that enable a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware).

This includes application software (such as a word processor, which enables a user to perform a task), and system of that (such as an operating system, which enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software).

also Computer software can be classified into three categories: system software, programming software and application software.

System Software:

A collection of programs designed to operate and extend the ability to process the computer itself is called software.  Basically the manufacturers prepare these programs and supply to the users. The users execute these programs whenever required. thereforeThere are different categories of system software as given below:

Operating System:

All the operations of that are managed by the operating system automatically. It also controls the functioning of hardware.


Firmware is the programs which written in the ROM of the computer.

Program Productivity Tools:

in like manner There are several powerful tools which do not need the programming knowledge. so these are Some of the important tools :

i. Data Base Management Software (DBase)

ii. Data Communication Software (D-Link)

iii. Desk Top Publishing Software (Page maker, CorelDraw)

iv. Graphic Software (Paint, brush, PM4)

v. Spread Sheet software (Lotus)

vi. Word Processing Software (Word Star)

Programming Software:

as a result It provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. and The tools include text editors, compilers, interpreters, linker , debuggers, and so on.