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VoIP technology and its comparison with Traditional Telecommunication Services

VoIP technology and its comparison with Traditional Telecommunication Services

VOIP (voice over internet protocol), also known as telephone IP, allows the Internet and computer networks for telephone calls. In contrast to traditional telephone lines, VoIP uses digital technology. And Also  requires a network platform; several companies now offer the above service on the Internet. So VoIP can use special hardware and tools to meet the above demand or can be implemented in a PC-based environment.


Communication has always been one of the necessities of human life, and human beings have always sought to invent technologies that can be used to communicate with other people. In the not-so-distant past, when humans did not experience the Internet, dial-up communications were conducted only by telephone using PSTN lines (Public Switched Telephone Network).

The invention of personal computers, new technologies, and the Internet are examples in this field that have made it possible for humans to communicate with other people using new services such as email, chat, and more. We can now witness a real revolution in communications. Each person can use the computer and the Internet to communicate with other people of interest, exchange data, or talk to each other through the available software facilities.

VOIP allows the use of the Internet and computer networks for telephone calls. In contrast to traditional telephone lines, VoIP uses digital technology and requires a network platform. Many companies now offer the above service on the Internet. Using VoIP technology, the human voice is sent by IP packets and through a computer network such as the Internet. VOIP can use special hardware and tools to meet the above demand or be implemented in a PC-based environment.

What is VoIP?

VoIP, also known as IP telephony, allows the Internet for telephone calls. In contrast to traditional telephone lines, VoIP uses digital technology and requires a broadband connection such as DSL. Currently, several companies provide the above service to those who are interested.

How to create a VoIP connection

Therefore To establish a VoIP-based connection, you must follow the steps below (all steps must be done in real-time).

1. Convert analog-to-digital signal: Convert analog-to-digital audio signal (set of zeros and ones) by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
2. Digital signal compression: After converting the audio signal to digital, the existing bits must be compressed based on a suitable format to be ready to be sent. In this regard, several protocols are used. PCM and ITU-T G.711 standard are examples in this field.
3. Using a real-time protocol: At this stage, voice packets are placed in data packets using a real-time protocol (usually “RTP over UDP”).
4. Using a signaling protocol: In this step, it is necessary to use a signaling protocol to call the user. The ITU-T H323 protocol is an example of this.
5. Convert digital signal to analog: On the receiver side, data packets must be extracted from each other, the data extracted and converted into analog audio signals, and finally sent to a sound card or telephone.

VoIP communication methods

VoIP systems can be used to make telephone calls in one of three ways:

1. ATA (gateway)

The easiest way to communicate over VoIP is with ATA (Analog Telephone Adapters), also called gateways. These tools allow you to use your current standard analog phones (if you are still using analog phones). You can easily connect your standard handset to ATA, then connect ATA to your computer or Internet connection. In addition This will allow you to connect to VoIP. ATA takes an analog signal from your standard telephone and converts it into a digital signal ready for transmission over the Internet. Some ATAs come with software that loads on your computer, enabling you to configure it for VOIP.

2. IP Phones

These handsets are quite similar to regular standard handsets. They have an RJ 45 Ethernet connector instead of the standard RJ 11 connectors. These phones have all the software and hardware needed for VoIP communication built-in. They connect directly to your router and provide a fast and cost-effective input to the world of VOIP.

3. Computer to computer

This is the easiest way to use VoIP technology. Many companies offer cost-effective software that you can use for this type of VoIP. Usually, the only amount you have to pay is the monthly ISP fee. So All you need is a microphone, a speaker, a sound card and a high-speed internet connection.

Advantages of VoIP

Because you can communicate with VoIP from anywhere you have access to the right bandwidth, users can take their ATAs or IP Phones with them when traveling and access all services, Providing access to their home phone.

Some people use a softphone to access their VoIP service. A softphone is a special software that loads VoIP service to your computer or laptop. These programs allow you to make telephone calls from anywhere in the world through your laptop whenever you have access to a suitable bandwidth connection.
Most traditional telephone companies will include the cost of additional services in your bill. On the other hand, these services are standard if you use VoIP service providers. Services such as:

  •  Caller ID
  •  Call Waiting
  • Call Transfer
  • Repeat Dialing
  • Return Call
  •  Three-way Dialing

Some VoIP service providers offer more benefits for filtering phone calls. These additional features allow you to decide how to transfer phone calls based on Caller ID information. These features allow you to do the following:

1. Forwarding a telephone call to a specific telephone number (Forwarding)
2. Send a direct call to Voicemail
3. Sending a subscription message to the caller
4. Possibility of subscriber unavailability of service

Many VoIP services allow you to check your Voicemail over the Internet or an email attachment sent to your computer or PDA. Ask your VoIP service provider about their features and service costs when providing VoIP service. For network administrators, the VoIP phone system means that they have only one network instead of two. Moving the VoIP system is also easy. This is because most of the telephone systems used in VoIP networks have a Web interface and can be easily managed by the network administrator.

The MAC process (Move, Add, Change) will be easy to do, and you do not need to contact your server every time you do MAC. All of this means less cost to your organization. Another benefit that companies with VoIP can have is that branches of organizations can be spread worldwide and do not need to be integrated.

VoIP applications

VoIP technology has many applications in telecommunication systems today. Also, VoIP has been used to transfer telephone lines, connect offices to each other’s telephone systems, and create new customer support centers. Also VoIP technology, in these cases, reduces costs, increases features, and improves reliability. Here are some VoIP applications.
1. The use of VoIP in the transmission of telephone lines
2. New call centers with VoIP
3. Use VoIP to connect offices
6. Voip system to replace traditional exchanges
7. Voip applications for landline operators
7. Voip technology for mobile operators

Numerous VoIP phone features:

The SIP protocol used in VoIP technology is very flexible yet simple. This has enabled the manufacturers of VIP products to implement many telephone facilities. Features like transferring calls, parking calls, sending to the mailbox, etc., are available on all VoIP systems. Therefore VoIP call centers usually provide users with several hundred telephone options.

  • Possibility of holding a conference call
  • Ability to use telephone software
  • Capability to connect to users’ mobiles
  • Ability to dial fast
  • Capability to create a voicemail
  • Ability to make a video call
  • Capability to connect different offices and integrate the telephone system with VoIP
  • Ability to easily move network users
  • Cheaper remote calls and even free communication via VOIP
  • Higher VoIP security
  • VoIP Advantage in Network Expansion
  • Ease of monitoring VoIP system

Comparison of VoIP technology and traditional telecommunication services:

VoIP technology has many advantages over traditional telephone systems such as analog and digital telephones.

  • In VoIP technology, the same network used to transfer data is also used to transfer calls, which reduces the cost of services.
  • VoIP telephony servers are smaller, simpler, and cheaper than analog telephone exchanges.
  • Implementing VoIP service data networks (including routers and switches) is much easier than telecommunications networks.
  •  Data networks are more stable than telecommunication networks based on circuit breakers, and their probability of failure is lower.
  • Due to data transmission in the form of data, VIP technology is more compatible with computer systems.

In the following, we will compare the two types of traditional telecommunication networks and VoIP from different perspectives:

1. Communication standards in VOIP telephony networks are protocols and data packets (such as IP networks), while standard communication interfaces (in-circuit circuit switches) are defined in traditional telecommunication networks.
2. Considering the nature of VOIP technology and the characteristics of IP networks, we will find that these networks have much fewer internal modes than a traditional telecommunication network. This makes it much easier and less expensive to maintain such networks.
3. In telecommunication networks, telecommunication services are located within the telecommunication network (internal equipment), which means that to have a special service, the telecommunication center must support that service. In other words, the user’s equipment in this type of service uses only the service. If they are ready to receive certain services, it is not possible to use that service until the telecommunication center provides that service. Conversely, in IP-based telecommunication networks, end systems can communicate with each other (without changing the telecommunication network) and use that service if they support a new service.
4. When using current telecommunication networks, all control and communication controls are applied through the telecommunication center (located in the communication network). In contrast, in future telecommunication networks based on IP protocol, the final systems will perform all these controls. Will take. In other words, dependence on the telecommunication center will be removed.
5. New IP-based telecommunication systems also support the same degree of reliability that existing telecommunication systems ensure network integrity. Statistical results of network failures and their comparison confirm this.

Equipment required VoIP

A VOIP system consists of the following components:

  • VoIP phones are usually connected to a computer network via a network port (Ethernet). These phones encode calls and send and receive data packets.
  •  VoIP phone service that creates and controls calls (plays a central role in traditional systems). VoIP phones are registered on this server with their username and password to be able to receive calls.
  • A gateway is a telephone connected to a landline telephone network (analog or digital telephone). So This gateway connects to telephone lines on one side and the network on the other side through a network port (Ethernet).
  • An analog telephone adapter (ATA) can be used if you need to connect ordinary analog phones to the VoIP network.
  • In addition to these components, it is sometimes necessary to use billing software, monitoring software, firewall, and VPN.
  • Various equipment and devices set up a VoIP-based telephone communication system. For each method of VoIP implementation, one or more of these devices are used. Below, to familiarize you with these types of equipment, the devices and their functions are mentioned.

VoIP Gateway

Gateway VoIP devices are network devices that convert voice and fax between IP network systems and analog systems. Depending on the type, these devices have some RJ11 socket inputs for analog system and E1 / T1 and network port for connection to IP network and are offered in FXO, FXS, E1 / T1 models. There are two ways to use Vip Gateway devices.
IP-PBX connection: Used to communicate between landlines and analog telephones to the networked call center. Landlines connect to the FXO, and analog telephones and fax machines to the FXS. Then, by making settings in the IP-PBX, FXO, and FXS devices, all internally connected to IP-PBX will be able to use landlines, and FXS-connected phones will be able to use the call center.

VoIP Cards:

IP-PBX software models installed on the server do not allow direct use of landlines, nor can analog telephones and fax machines communicate directly with it. Gateway devices or Voip cards are used for this purpose.
VoIP cards are available in PCI and PCI-e models. These cards, which have FXO modules for connecting landlines, FXS for analog phones, and E1 for E1 lines, are installed on the server, and then Driver installation and detection are used by IP-PBX.

VoIP protocols used

The most commonly used protocols used in VoIP are:

(1 SIP protocol
2) Protocol H323
SIP protocol
SIP = Session Initiation Protocol / Session initiation protocol is one of the voice transmission protocols on the Internet protocol. This protocol is the strongest audio and video transmission protocol on the Internet, and no new IP / PBX will be produced that does not support this protocol. A very powerful protocol that can transmit audio with much the same pressure as other protocols with the same hardware. So This protocol works in the third layer.


Due to the many benefits that have been mentioned for this technology, this technology has not yet been able to be used on a large scale, and the reason is nothing but some issues resulting from the difference between VOIP architecture and the Internet, such as voice data exchange must be done immediately and non-stop.

This is inconsistent with the inconsistent architecture of the Internet, which may use some routers to route packets and cause problems. And according to the future human need for this technology, the use of VOIP technology can be provided by applying the necessary changes and using other technologies. Therefore, this technology can have a great impact on people’s daily lives and help them advance their goals.