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What Are The Components Of A Database System?

A Database System Is A Collection Of Components Of Various Database Software Components That Are Made Up Of Sections Of Database Applications, Client Components, Database Server (S), And The Database Itself. In This Article, We Briefly Review Each Of These Components.

A database application is a special-purpose software designed and implemented by users or third-party software companies.

Client component

In contrast, there are client components that fall into the category of all-purpose database software designed and implemented by the database company. Using client components, users can access data stored on a local computer or remote computers.

Database server

The job of the database server is to manage the data stored in a database. Each client interacts with the database server by sending a request. The server processes each dialog and sends the result to the client.


In general, a database can be examined from both user and system perspectives. From a user perspective, a database is a collection of data that is logically related to each other. From a systemic point of view, a database refers to bytes stored on a disk. Although these two views of a database are completely different, they also have commonalities. The database system must not only provide interfaces that enable users to create databases and retrieve or modify data, but also provide system components for managing stored data.

Therefore, a database system must provide the following features:

Different types of user interfaces

Physical independence of data

Logical data independence

Questionnaire optimization

Data integrity

Simultaneous control

Backup and restore

Database Security

The description of each of these components is as follows:

Different user interfaces

Most databases are designed to be usable by users with different levels of knowledge. For this reason, a database system must provide a wide range of functionalities and sometimes separate for user interfaces.

The user interface can be graphical or textual. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) accept user input via keyboard or mouse and provide graphical output on the monitor.

The text user interfaces most often used by database systems is a command-line interface, where the user enters the input by typing command with the keyboard and displays the output system textually on the screen.

Physical independence of data

Physical data independence means that database applications do not depend on the physical structure of the data stored in a database. This important feature enables you to modify stored data without having to make changes to database applications.

For example, if the stored data has already been sorted using a particular criterion, and this sorting has been modified using another criterion, physical data modification should not affect the performance of existing database applications or the existing database layout.

Logical data independence

In the file processing process (using traditional programming languages), a file is defined in applications, so any change in the structure of that file usually requires the modification of all the programs that use it. Database systems provide logical data independence – in other words, it is possible to make changes to the logical structure of the database without having to make changes to the database applications.

For example, if there is a physical structure called PERSON in the database system and you want to add an attribute to PERSON, you only need to modify the logical structure of the database and there is no need to edit existing programs. (Of course, the program must be modified to be able to use the new column added.)

Questionnaire optimization

Most database systems have a subset of optimized optimizations that include a variety of possible implementation strategies for queries related to data interaction and then select the most efficient method. The strategy chosen is called the query execution program. The optimizer makes its decisions using considerations such as the size of the tables involved in the query, what the criteria are, and the type of logical operator (AND, OR, or NOT) in the WHERE statement.

Data integrity

One of the tasks of a database system is to identify incompatible logical data and reject its storage in a database. (A clear example of this is February 30, or 5:77:00 p.m., two examples of conflicting data.) In addition, most real-world problems implemented by database systems have integration constraints rather than everything. Implement properly. (An example of an integration constraint might be an employee’s organizational number, which should be a five-digit number.)

The data integration task can be performed by working in a database application or database management system (DBMS). In most cases, this task must be performed by the DBMS.

Synchronous control

A database system is a multi-user software system, meaning that many applications can access a database at the same time. Therefore, every database system must have some kind of control mechanism to ensure that several programs that try to update the same data do so in a controlled manner. The following is an example of a problem that may arise if a database system does not include such control mechanisms:

  1. Bank account holders 4711 have $ 2000 in Bank X balance.
  2. The two joint owners of this bank account, Ms. A and Mr. B, refer to two different bank tellers and each withdraws $ 1,000 at the same time.
  3. After completing this transaction, the amount of money in bank account 4711 should be $ 0 and not $ 1000. All database systems have the necessary mechanisms to deal with things like the above scenario.

Backup and restore

A database system must have a subsystem that is responsible for recovering hardware or software errors. For example, if a crash occurs while updating 100 rows of tables by a database application, the recovery subsystem must reset all executed updates. This is done to ensure the consistency of the relevant data after the error occurs.

Database Security

One of the most important security concepts associated with a database is authentication and permissions. Authentication is the process of authenticating user information to prevent unauthorized use of the system by unauthorized users. Authentication is usually done by requiring the user to enter a username and password. This information is evaluated by the system to determine if the user has access to the system.

This process can be improved by using cryptography.

Licensing refers to the process that takes place after a user has been authenticated. During this process, the system determines what resources a particular user can use. In other words, access to specific information is only possible for important people such as top executives, and other users are not allowed access to sensitive information.