Fundamental of wireless sensor network

Without a doubt, the network concept and technology has brought a great change in people’s lives over the past year.

Scientists and engineers are always striving to create an efficient network. They do this because they want to reduce energy and time consumption by current networks. Additionally, experts in this area provide nice ideas for using networks in areas like natural disasters, traffic management, and so on. Networking, generally, is an amazing technology that connects almost all nations and people in the whole world. We can mention several advantages of this technology that on the top of them is communication. In this post, we are going to work out some nice information about networks especially wireless sensor networks.


Like other technologies such as machine learning, cloud computing, natural language processing, gamification, and so on, that have changed our life, network technology almost changed and actually made it better all aspects of our life. Also, experts claimed other technologies are based on networks. Imagine that there is no network, how can we communicate with someone in thousands of miles away? How can we send and receive information in less than 1 second?

Computer network

Computer network refers to the connection of many stations (computer sets) that this connection is based on communication protocols. The purpose of the computer network is to share resources.


The network was born in 1960 and was named the Arpanet network, which was created to establish connections between military bases using the telegraph and telephone lines that existed at the time. In 1970, science and business centers joined the network. It is noteworthy that networks were not cohesive until 1980, but from 1980 onwards they merged to form the Internet. In 1989, websites created for two purposes 1) Transmission of the information and 2) Integrated information because before 1989, information was not integrated and it was not possible to transfer information. In 1990, the Internet became public. And in 2000 TV IP, IP VOs came into this technology.

Types of networks

Networks categorize based on the distance between computers.

Pan (personal Area Network)

A personal area network (PAN) is the smallest type of network. The PAN has a connectivity range of about 10 meters. This type of network can include a computer keyboard and mouse, Bluetooth-enabled headphones, wireless printers, and TV remotes.

Lan (local area network)

The distance between the computers is about one building. And covers a distance of about 200 meters.


Man (Metropolitan area network)

Covers the distance of a city. About 20 kilometers.

Wan (wide area network)

Like the Internet, it has no geographical restrictions.


It is the largest network on Earth. The Internet includes all WANs and can connect to LANs and home networks. This network uses the TCP / IP protocol and uses IP for addressing and today is mainly implemented by IPv4.

This network has enabled its users to share and transfer a vast amount of information around the world and uses WWW, TFP, email services, audio and video streams, and more.

Three advantages of using network

  1. transferring of information
  2. resource sharing
  3. computation: Some computing cannot be done by one computer and we have to connect computers together.

Wireless sensor network

In comparing wireless and cable networks, the following characters consider for wireless sensor network:

  • Installation
  • cost
  • performance reliability
  • security

The wireless sensor network is the set of sensors that wirelessly interconnect with each other which every single sensor senses one particular thing. The number of these sensors can be very large and their range can be very wide. The sensors of this network can be manually located and fixed in specific locations or randomly scattered in the specific location for sensing.

Wireless Networks Applications and Advantages

Wireless network technology allows hardware devices to communicate with each other without the use of physical equipment such as wires and cables. The main purpose of these networks first, is to collect information after the establishment, and then the life of the network as long as possible.

The terms of wireless sensor network

Sensor: A device that detects the existence of an object and the occurrence of a condition. It converts data into electrical signals. The sensor has different types such as temperature, pressure, humidity, light, accelerometer, magnetometer, etc. sensors.

Sensor node: A node that contains only one or more sensors.

Sensor network: A network that includes only sensor nodes. This network is a special type of sensor network. this uses in applications that aim to gather information and monitor a phenomenon, such as studying tornadoes.

Security in wireless sensor network

Wireless sensor networks were originally created to collect information from an unreliable environment. Almost all security protocols for WSN believe that an enemy or intruder can communicate Directly and take full control of a node. The emergence of sensor networks as one of the main technologies of the future creates several challenges for researchers. Wireless sensor networks are made up of a large number of small nodes that work separately. Finally, security is the most important in the adoption and use of sensor networks in a variety of applications. There are also a variety of other challenges.

Attacks on wireless sensor networks

A large-scale wireless sensor network consists of thousands of sensors and may scatter in a vast environment. Sensor nodes are typically small with limited computing power and communication powered by batteries. These small sensor nodes are the potential for a variety of attacks. For a large-scale sensor network, it is not practical to monitor and protect any single sensor from physical or logical attacks. Attacks grouped into internal and external categories. An external attacker does not have access to most of the encryption components in the sensor network, while an internal attacker may have some of the key components.

Clustering in wireless sensor network

Today, in most WSN applications, the network must be fully capable of managing automation over large environments. In many WSN applications, sensor nodes spread in a specific area. For example, with a helicopter. The grouping of nodes in clusters has been widely accepted by the research community to achieve comparability and achieve higher energy efficiency and longer life in the WSN network environment.




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