With The Covid 19 Vaccine, Many People Are Wondering If They Should Receive Booster Doses In The Future And If The Booster Dose Should Be The Same As The First Doses.
Corona Vaccine, If you have received the Covid 19 vaccine, you may feel superpowered because you know your immunity has increased, and you may be happy to be able to get back to everyday life. Still, you may also be wondering what will happen next. Will you need a booster over the next few months? Does the answer to this question depend on which vaccine you received first? Like the flu vaccines designed to fight new strains every year, do you need to get a new vaccine intended to fight new songs every year?
According to a recent study published in the journal Nature, people who have received the mRNA vaccine (Pfizer / Bivantek or Modern) may have sustained immunity; So that they do not need an amplifier for years.
It is good news, But the question remains:
Is it still the case if we are old or have a defective immune system? And what if we got another type of vaccine-like Johnson & Johnson or Oxford / AstraZeneca? ( Covid Johnson & Johnson & AstraZeneca vaccines use a harmless version of the common cold virus as a carrier to deliver instructions for making coronavirus spike protein to cells.)
Some scientists who have received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, which is in a single dose, have said they are taking an additional amount of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine because they are concerned that one dose may not be enough to control the more contagious delta species. Naturally, people also ask whether they should do the same. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has not yet made any recommendations. A working group from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there was still no evidence that a booster needs in June.
The following are expert answers to the most commonly asked questions about Covid 19 vaccine booster or booster doses. The solutions are based on what experts already know and may change with access to new data.
What are amplifiers, and how do they work?
A booster vaccine is a way to boost the immune system’s response to a pathogen. What the booster does can be precisely what the primary vaccine does, where the goal is to increase protection (for example, by producing more antibodies). Still, if scientists want to protect you against a new strain that is very different from the version of the virus you were vaccinated against, they can change the booster. For understanding this more clearly, it is helpful to review some of the basics about how our bodies respond to the virus.
The critical point is that it is not only antibodies that save us. Our immune system has more tools to defend the body: Killer T cells find and kill infected cells. There are helper T cells that stimulate killer T cells, and they use another group of cells called macrophages to devour infected cells and B cells. B cells are essential because they produce antibodies.
Certain types of B cells become memory B cells. These cells store specific antibody production instructions, But they are not active. They hide in the spleen, lymph nodes, and perhaps the primary site of infection, waiting for a signal to resume antibody production.
When you receive the booster vaccine, you signal to the B cells to reactivate.
Now, whether the booster contains the original vaccine instructions or different instructions, it is functional. If it includes primary education, it amplifies the signal and increases the number of antibodies produced. If it contains modified instructions, it will retrain the cells so that if you encounter a new species, they can detect new features of the virus and produce antibodies.
Which groups will need a booster for Covid 19?
It should note that boosters are only used for people who have been vaccinated. In the coming months, health officials will consider two more factors to determine whether or not you should receive a booster vaccine.
First, whether you are a relatively young, healthy person who is likely to have a strong vaccine response; Either you are elderly or have a defective immune system that you may not have had such a strong response. Amplifiers are much more critical for the second group.
Second, is there a new species different enough from the original virus to escape the immunity you already have? “In the second scenario, everyone needs a booster,” said Ali al-Bedi, an immunologist at the University of Washington who co-authored a new study published in Nature.
In other words, if a new species emerges that is entirely different from what we have seen so far, we want the whole population to be covered by a wide range of boosters and start the general vaccination again.
“But if we control the species, we may not need it for everyone, and we may only need it for a specific population that is elderly or has a defective immune system,” al-Badi said.
The UK, which has approved all three vaccines used in the United States and the Oxford / Astrazeneca vaccine, plans to inject booster doses to people aged 50 and older before winter.
According to Krotica Copali, an infectious disease specialist at the University of South Carolina Medical University, you should expect boosters distributed among priority groups, just like primary vaccines. “In my opinion, they should first be considered for people with the most immune deficiencies, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients,” he said.
If you have received the Johnson & Johnson or Oxford / Astrazeneca vaccine (compared to Pfizer or Moderna), do you need a booster more likely?
It is a complex issue.
A body study shows that most people who have received mRNA vaccines, such as Pfizer or Modern may not need a booster for years.
The research team collected samples of participants’ lymph nodes, where immune cells are trained in the germ center structure to identify new pathogens. Almost four months after the participants received the first dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, the germ centers were still very active, and the number of memory cells had not decreased.
The researchers did not review the Johnson & Johnson vaccine (note that the Conflict of Interest section states some authors advise Pfizer or are on the Modern Advisory Board). Al-Bedi said in an interview with the New York Times that Johnson & Johnson may need a booster.
Monica Gandhi, a physician, and professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, has criticized Al-Badi’s conclusion. “I see no reason why the Johnson & Johnson or AstraZeneca vaccine should not produce the same strong immune response,” he said.
Asked to explain, Bedi said he did not think mRNA vaccines produced more sustainable responses. Instead, the critical issue is the number of antibodies produced and the number of cells the body considers memory cells.
“There is a slight difference in the number of antibodies produced after two doses of mRNA vaccine,” says al-Badi. The amount of antibody produced by two doses of mRNA vaccine is greater than the amount paid by one dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
“This is also evident in terms of efficiency in trials.”
The efficacy of mRNA vaccines in preventing Covid 19 has a sign of 94 to 95%. Still, in clinical trials, Johnson & Johnson’s efficacy rate was 66 percent (all three vaccines effectively prevented hospitalization and death from Covid 19). “I think for those who have received a dose of Johnson & Johnson vaccine, immunization with an enhancer should probably be considered, “Especially with the help of one of the mRNA vaccines.”
But Johnson & Johnson announced on July 1 that a booster or second dose of the vaccine was not necessary. The company said in a press release that it had conducted a small study showing that a single dose of the vaccine provided adequate protection against the delta species.
The results have not yet been published in prestigious journals. Still, it is encouraging: one dose of this vaccine not only triggered a strong antibody response against this species, but the antibodies increased over time, But the company is testing to see if the two doses provide better protection.
Meanwhile, some experts, such as Peter Hotz of Baylor College of Medicine, said Johnson & Johnson vaccine recipients in the United States should wait for guidance.
But other scientists concerned about the spread of the delta species have received the Pfizer vaccine, arguing that it is not harmful and may be helpful. Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada, recently received a dose of Pfizer after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in April.
He asked Americans who have received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to ask their doctors about the possibility of a second dose.
But in general, based on current evidence, Johnson & Johnson vaccine recipients do not need to worry about not receiving one of the mRNA vaccines as the first dose. “Kupali, an infectious disease specialist, says:
People who have been vaccinated differently should not feel cheated. Johnson & Johnson & AstraZeneca vaccines are both excellent and, in most cases, provide reasonable protection against Covid (except AstraZeneca against beta species). The most important thing to keep in mind is that vaccines have been shown to prevent hospitalization and death associated with Covid 19.
Is it essential that the booster is compatible with the initial vaccine you received?
If you have been vaccinated, the booster does not have to match the original vaccine. “It does not have to be the same at all,” says Gandhi. Recent data suggest that the combination of vaccines may potentiate the immune response.
According to a study not yet reviewed by experts, people who received a dose of the Oxford / Astrazeneca vaccine and then an amount of Pfizer a month later had more robust immune responses than people who received both doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine.
The vaccine combination strategy yielded the same antibody level as the two-dose Pfizer vaccine. The combination of the two vaccines also produced a more potent T cell response, more than twice the response of the two doses of Pfizer.
Several studies show the benefits of vaccine combination, and no severe side effects have been reported so far. Of course, these studies were relatively small (so small that they could not detect them if there were rare side effects); So some scientists say more extensive studies are needed.
Is it possible to receive a vaccine designed for a circulating species each year, like the annual flu vaccine?
Covid 19 is unlikely to require an annual booster vaccine; Because Covid 19 is very different from infectious diseases such as the flu. The flu has a high mutation rate; it changes a lot from year to year.
The Covid virus has 19 mutations in its spike protein region, But the changes have not been so significant that we will probably need a special kind of booster every year. Al-Bedi says:
Assuming there are no unusual species (something completely different), I do not understand why a person who has developed a healthy response to the vaccine will need a booster over the next two to three years.
Gandhi is even more optimistic. “It is not clear whether people with a natural immune system will need a booster at all if they are fully vaccinated,” he said.
All vaccines elicit a good immune response, which, as mentioned earlier, includes antibodies and T cells and memory B cells. Gandhi cites a 2008 study that found that people infected with the flu as children and long ago in 1918 were still immune to B cells 90 years later. Memory B cells can survive for decades.
But Gandhi thinks that as a precaution against Covid 19, and because the new coronavirus is still very new, it makes sense to get a booster once a decade.
But keep in mind that this is based on the assumption that an entirely different species does not appear. We can not predict what species of the virus will occur, and low vaccination rates worldwide increase the likelihood of species becoming infected. If you have received the vaccine, your chances of getting the species are suitable; But the virus has already taken us by surprise, and it may do so again.
Therefore, experts will continue to monitor the population and vaccine trial participants in the coming months and years. If they see that vaccinated people are experiencing more post-vaccination infections than expected, it may be a sign that it is time to think about boosters.
Are Amplifiers Always Useful or Dangerous?
According to Al-Bedi, there is no scientific reason to think that getting more boosters is harmful in any way. We have studies from the UK that show that even the third dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine is beneficial. The worst-case scenario is that this dose is useless, But there is no reason to think it hurts us.
Of course, experts do not think that all amplifiers will offer for free. Gandhi says:
Vaccines are expensive, and insurance companies do not pay for them. People can afford it; But this should be based on scientific evidence, not fear or anxiety.
According to Gandhi, we must keep in mind that enhancers increase the level of antibodies; But that does not mean we need those higher levels of protection. There are T cells, and there are B memory cells; So if they come across a pathogen in the future, they will come out and fight it. There is no reason to take a booster to increase the antibodies temporarily. Developed countries looking for advocates can prevent people in developing countries from accessing the first and second doses of the vaccine.
Do people who have received the Covid Sinopharm vaccine need a booster?
So far, few studies have been published on the possible efficacy of the third dose of Sinopharm vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). Still, a small study from China found that a third dose of the Covid 19 Sinopharm vaccine resulted in a return to antibody levels that dropped a few months after the second dose. This study also showed that the amplifier enhances cell-based responses to the coronavirus. (Covid 19 inactivated virus was used to make the Sinopharm vaccine.)
The findings, which experts have not yet reviewed, come as China has begun injecting the third dose into high-risk individuals, fearing that lowering antibody levels over time will weaken protection against the virus. The Sinopharm vaccine is one of the primary Covid vaccines in China and is used by some other countries.
About five months after the second dose of Sinopharm, the average concentration of antibody-neutralizing antibodies to the virus dropped by 70 percent from the levels seen four weeks after the amount, according to an analysis of samples collected from health care workers.
One week after the third dose, the antibody concentration increased 7.2 times than the levels observed five months after the second dose.
The study of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine does not address how changes in antibody concentrations may affect vaccine efficacy or how antibody enhancement responds to different virus strains.
According to this article, cellular responses, another essential part of the human immune system, also improved after the third dose of Sinopharm. The researchers said that humoral and cellular responses to the third dose of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine were potent and rapid and that cellular responses could be necessary for long-term protection. Still, two outside experts said it was not yet clear how T cell responses were linked to the security of Covid vaccines.