Japanese scientists have discovered a specific gene for a monoclonal antibody that holds promising therapeutic development for natural tooth regeneration in humans.
Damaged Teeth, In children who lose their baby teeth, new teeth erupt within a few months; But this condition does not exist in adulthood when they lose their teeth. Meanwhile, a new study by scientists at Kyoto University and Fukui University may hold out hope.
The scientists report that antibodies to the USAG-1 gene can stimulate tooth growth in mice with congenital tooth agenesis, which is a congenital condition.
The normal adult human mouth has 32 teeth, and about 1% of the population have more or less teeth due to congenital conditions.
Scientists have studied the genetic causes of having large teeth as a clue to tooth restoration in adults. According to study co-author Katsu Takahashi , the key molecules responsible for tooth growth have already been identified.
“Individual tooth morphology depends on the interaction between several molecules, including BMP or bone morphogenesis protein and Wnt signaling,” says Takahashi.
In mice with USAG-1 deficiency, traces of deciduous teeth remain and germinate as extra teeth. Damaged Teeth
The role of BMP and Wnt is more than just tooth growth. They regulate the growth of many organs and tissues even before the human body is about the size of a raisin.
Accordingly, drugs that directly affect their activity are usually avoided; Because the side effects caused by them can affect the whole body.
The researchers speculated that it might be safer to target factors that specifically counteract the effects of BMP and Wnt on tooth growth; Therefore, they chose the USAG-1 gene. “We knew that suppressing USAG-1 helps teeth grow,” Takahashi added.
“What we did not know was whether the gene was sufficient for this purpose.”
Scientists have studied the effects of several monoclonal antibodies to USAG-1. Monoclonal antibodies are commonly used to treat cancer and arthritis and to make vaccines .
The USAG-1 gene interacts with both BMP and Wnt; As a result, several antibodies that led to poor birth and survival rates in mice confirmed the importance of BMP and Wnt in whole-body growth.
However, the promising antibody only disrupted the interaction between USAG-1 and BMP.
Experiments with the antibody showed that BMP signaling was necessary to determine the number of teeth in mice. In addition, just one use was enough to produce a complete tooth. Subsequent experiments showed the same effects in domestic rats.
“Domestic mink are animals that bite their teeth twice in their lifetime and resemble human tooth patterns,” explains Takahashi.
“Our next plan is to test these antibodies on other animals, such as pigs and dogs.”
According to Medical Express , the new study is the first to demonstrate the benefits of monoclonal antibodies in tooth reconstruction and provide a new therapeutic framework for a clinical problem that is currently only solvable with implants and other artificial procedures.
At the end of Manabv Sugai , another author of the paper, Fukui University, concludes: “Restoration is not suitable for normal tissue engineering.